Tyler’s Rationale- Week 2

The Tyler Rationale is basically the idea that when it comes to education, the outcomes are more important than the progress. He has very structured objectives that he suggest every educator must ask themselves when creating a curriculum

  1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
  2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?
  3. How can educational experiences be effectively organized?
  4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

His approach insisted that children learn and demonstrate good behavior as part of becoming a better student; “as (Tyler 1949) wrote education is a process of changing the behavior of people” (Schiro, 2013 pg 58). The article also mentions his emphasize organizational skills and standardized testing.

During grade school I somewhat remember the Tyler Rationale throughout my classes in a sense of everyone was expected to maintain certain educational goals solely by the way it was taught. There were never discussions or accommodations for those who may have needed it. We were always tested on what were expected to know and unfortunately some students test much better than others. Everything was organized from subjects, to topics and we would often start at the beginning of the text book and work our way through to the end. I would say it was very traditional and factory like; “education is a shaping process as much as the manufacture of steel rails; the personality is to be shaped and fashioned into desirable forms. (Schiro, 2013 pg 67)


What are the major limitations of the Tyler rationale/what does it make impossible?

I would say some limitations of the Tyler Rationale is that it isn’t necessarily accommodating for students with diverse needs or abilities to have other ways of learning and achieving educational goals. There is no such thing as one shoe fits all. Also, I would say that this Rationale may lack some creativity or imagination which could allow for more memorable and impacting learning experiences than just basic guidelines. Next, I would have to say that standardized testing isn’t always an accurate representation of a student’s abilities. Many students learn in different ways and are able to convey that knowledge in more than one way as well. Very often standardized testing is very intimidating and discouraging which can cause students to feel overly nervous and stressed. Lastly, as a future teacher I think that Tyler’s Rationale may imply that teachers must follow particular curriculums without flexibility or innovation. This could prevent teachers from adapting the curriculum in order to teach their students to the best of their abilities and allow them to shape and form some of their own ideas.


What are some potential benefits/what is made possible?

I would say maybe a benefit would be that it offers structure for those who may need or like it and it does demonstrate good organizational skills. Since it seems to be such a factory model maybe it will help prepare students for a factory day job?


Schiro, Michael (2013). Curriculum theory: Conflicting visions and enduring concerns, (2nd Ed). SAGE.




The Great Escape- Week 1

Week 1 visual the great escape

For my visual sketch I drew two road signs, one exiting reality (that of course suggests I come back soon), and one welcoming me to nature. I did this because very often I find myself referring to nature and my outdoor environment as an “escape”. As a person who has recently been experiencing severe anxiety, I have found that when I start to panic the first idea that comes to my mind is to “get out”. Get out of the classroom, the house, my car, whatever it may be, I just need to leave. I often go for a walk outside and get some fresh air. I look at old pictures of me at the mountains because they are a nostalgic escape to my childhood. Anything to distract me from the overwhelming- expectations, of life.

This past summer was a big eye opener for me as my once fresh- escape from reality was no longer a place of peace as I found it hard to breathe some days, and suffered from extremely dry eyes whenever I would go outside. Of course these issues were nothing compared to the many people whom were losing their homes to the blazing forest fires spreading across our provinces. I had never wanted rain more badly in my life, and when it didn’t come I couldn’t believe how much it began to affect my mood, health and overall being. I had for so long taken for granted the fresh air that once brought my mind to ease that I had realized it is also our means of living. I have often avoided the topic of global warming and climate change mostly to avoid the anxiety that comes with knowing the truth and because I feel as though I don’t really know much about it or what I should be and could be doing in order to help it. In one of our class readings “What is Education for?” Orr states that “all education is environmental education” (Orr, 2004, pg 12). I have never heard a statement like this before but as new as the idea was to me it made the most sense. We all impact and influence the environment regardless of indirect or direct contact with it; everything we do or do not do has effects on our environment. Taking care of our natural world is and should be a part of our normal lifestyles and this is why environmental education and knowledge must be so actively fluent in our curriculum and daily lives. Our world is now at a place where it needs change the most and without EE we will never know how important this is and what we all need to be doing about it. This is an issue that we evidently cannot escape.

Orr, D. W. (2004). Earth in mind on education, environment, and the human prospect. Washington (DC): Island Press.

Week 1: Commonsense- The Great Disguise

Kumashiro suggest’s that depending on where you are, commonsense can vary and have different meanings for certain people. He describes it as being a common narrative which allows for oppression to take place without people being aware of it. He suggests that many people take comfort in practicing their commonsense; however, a lot of the time commonsense can be more beneficial to particular groups of people than others.

While Kumashiro taught in Nepal he found that things were very different than what he was used to back in America. He found that he sometimes struggled when conforming to the local commonsense and when he suggested new ideas he was often corrected or rejected. His mission was to bring new forms of teaching into the local school system; however these new forms of teaching were mostly just American commonsense and ideas. This in fact was not “improvement” but oppression as the American ways of learning were suggested to be better for Nepal students.

Often our own commonsense can be familiar and provide comfort for our daily lives that is of course if we happen to fall on the benefiting part of the common narrative scale. When challenging commonsense one may experience “pressure to conform” (page 4), which of course discourages diversity and change because change may not continue to be favorable for the dominant groups. It is important that we pay attention to our “commonsense” because it can often be wrong and by not addressing it, correcting it or advocating for changing it, we are contributing to the disguised oppression.

Inclusive Education

A few things I have learned after completing our required readings:

1.Cerebral Palsy is not genetic. It is normally caused during pregnancy, birth or in early months of life. I did not know that it was not a hereditary condition. I guess I always just assumed it was hereditary, but this just goes to show how uneducated I was and still am on the condition.

2. Not only has statistics shown that including students with diverse abilities in a regular classroom setting is most successful and efficient for the student, I have now learned that statistics show that it is even more beneficial for other students as well. This is because when you are working alongside peers with disabilities, you become more engaged in the curriculum in order to help and collaborate with your peers.

3. Something else I had never really thought of is how Hollywood cast able bodied actors to play characters with diverse abilities. When Maysoon Zayid had mentioned that she was not cast because they didn’t think she would be able to do the stunts needed for them film and she answered with “if I can’t do the stunts then neither can the character”, it really hit home for me. It made me realize that society often excludes diverse abilities, or does not portray them accurately. This contributes to lack of inclusion, awareness and acceptance of people with diverse abilities because they are never able to actually represent themselves or are misrepresented by others who do not have a clue as to what it actually means and feels like to be in there shoes.


A couple connections I’ve made:

1.  After Dan Habib and his wife were told that their son Samuel has cerebral palsy, he said that they decided that they needed to create a vision for him. They decided that the vision they needed for Samuel was that he felt as though he belonged. This is one of the most important parts and outcomes of the concept of inclusion, and how important it is for children like Samuel. I would also like to connect the importance of inclusion for all abilities with the inclusion for all languages and ethnicities as well. It is important that children are not forced to lose their mother tongue in order to learn a new one. It is important that Indigenous people are seen and represented throughout the community and classroom. All of these offer children of different abilities, languages and ethnicities the opportunity to feel a sense of belonging. As mentioned in the video, school is one of the most significant hubs in our community and for a child to not feel as though they belong in that school, can also isolate them from their community and society as well. Removing children from the classroom only separates them from their students and does nothing for others who should be learning about how normal it is to be different.

2. Another connection I was able to make is how Dan Habib talked about Todd and how he was angry that he was always treated like a little child when he was so much more advanced than that. This is something I hope to always be aware of when working with students with diverse abilities. I hope to challenge them and support them when needed and educate myself on how I can best encourage their involvement and involvement of others with them. I would hate to hinder any of my students from being the best that they can and want to be.


Something to think about:

After seeing the statistic that 56% of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities spend their entire day segregated in special education classrooms, even after hearing how efficient and successful they are integrated into regular classrooms, I can’t help but wonder why? Is it because teachers would need an EA? Or are there other reasons? Thoughts?


Train of Tears: My Secret Path Reflection

A few things I have learned after completing our required readings:

1. I actually didn’t think it was legal for a community to not have clean water. I have heard about communities, even some local, having to go without heat, power or clean water for certain periods of time, but I was pretty taken back to hear that this is just a common norm for this community. We always see commercials on TV such as world vision that show starving children across the world with little to no access of food and clean water, yet this is actually happening right here in our own country as well. I am just surprised that there are close to one hundred communities in our country that do not have access to clean water.

2. Although I would like to think that I am knowledgeable about Residential school and the intergenerational trauma that has stemmed from it (of course I have much more to learn), this video was the first time that I have heard about the trains that would take all of the kids away from their families. I know that the children were by law, forced from their families but I never really put much thought into how the children were transported to the schools. This scenario reminds me all too much of how during WWII, Jewish people were transported by train from the ghettos to concentration camps. This thought gives me the chills knowing that Canada also transported children by train to which for many ended up being the death of them physically, emotionally and mentally. I believe the man in the video called it “train of tears”, which is absolutely heartbreaking.

3. During the panel discussion, one of the gentlemen discussed how only 40% of Canadians were aware of the TRC calls to action and this statistic sadly did not surprise me.  Canada is still so very unaware and I hate to admit this but if it wasn’t for one of my university classes I may have never been aware of this document as well. I think that many Canadians are either completely unaware of The TRC or simply feel as though it does not apply to them. Residential school is Canadian history not just Indigenous peoples history, so it is very important that all Canadians are a part of the process of reconciliation.

A couple connections I’ve made:

1. During the panel discussion, one of the speakers mentioned how her father spoke Cree very well and was actually well known for how well he spoke his language. She said that she did not learn her language since she was adopted by a farming family and was not raised by her own parents. She is trying to learn Cree now and has a son who wants to learn it as well. You could tell that it hurt her to admit that she is unable to teacher her son Cree especially since he wanted her to do so. This is something that we have discussed in my ELNG 200 class. We have debated whether or not Cree should be mandatory in Canadian Elementary schools. Some students have expressed that it may not be worth it to teach Cree in school since some parents are unable to speak it with them at home. However, much like the circumstance of the panel speaker, she did not have the opportunity to learn Cree and although she is unable to speak it fluently, she still wants her son to learn it and he wants this as well. I think it is important to many Indigenous people to keep their language alive, whether every family member can speak it or not. Their language is a very significant part of their culture since story- telling is an important way of learning and teaching. Although they can share their stories in English as well I think it may be more effective and traditional to be able to do so in their own language.


2. Another connection I was able to make was with Pearl and how she felt it was crucial for there to be schools on and in Indigenous communities and reserves. The small town that I grew up in is rather close to a couple different reserves. At the time, Ochapowace school only went up to grade eight then the kids were transported to other surrounding towns to finish the following grades. This was a big adjustment and sometimes tough for the students because although they could take the bus to and from school, this eliminated a lot of extra curricula activities due to lack of transportation. Also, our school was not exactly inclusive of Indigenous culture and traditions so I think this was also tough for them to not have a place of belonging and surroundings that represent their identities. First Nation students should no longer have to leave their reserve or community in order to obtain an education. I believe that they should have the option on whether they would like to stay on their reserve to attend school or go elsewhere. I think they should have the right to equal education and resources without having to potentially leave their community or family.

Something to think about:

Do you think that Cree language should be offered/ mandatory in elementary schools? Do you think that it shouldn’t? Why or why not? Would be it beneficial for Canadians and reconciliation? Is it too late?  I am just curious as to different thoughts and perspectives of both sides and reasoning behind it.

How Schools Play “Smear the Queer”

A few things I have learned after completing our required readings:

1. That there was an actual game called “Smear the Queer” and it was played in schools during gym class. I have never heard of this before so I actually googled it and I could not believe how many times it was mentioned being played in schools. I even saw a video a people playing it; very surprising.

2. I have never heard the term “Heteronormativity” (not that I can recall anyway), and in our reading Can We Learn Queerly I learned that Heteronormativity is basically the idea that young boys and girls will grow up to marry the opposite sex; it is much like Heterosexuality. It is kind of sad how this word has “normativity” in it which basically suggests that this should be the norm, and it is not. By not acknowledging diverse sexuality, we are hindering our students from being able to either be themselves, be supportive or be understanding.

3. This may be rather naïve and ignorant of me but I was actually surprised to learn that “thirty percent of all youth suicides are committed by gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth” (Smear the Queer, p. 59). I never really realized the detrimental effects that sexuality exclusion has on teenagers that identify as gay, lesbian and bisexual. However, as I think about this now of course it significantly affects our youth since this is such a big part of their development. Since this is something that I haven’t had to experience first-hand I suppose I have been completely oblivious and ignorant to the fact that I have never felt discrimination towards my sexuality or relationships. This is a very concerning statistic, yet conversations about sexuality still seem to be so brief, rare and uncomfortable for most people.


A couple connections I’ve made:

1.In the How Schools Play the Smear the Queer article, they discussed a situation about a student named Steve and how he was expelled for bringing a gun to school in order to protect himself from harassment. The school did not address the issue of Steve being bullied in regards to his assumed sexuality. This story resonates with me as I had a friend whom brother was extremely bullied in high-school and as a result ended up taking his own life. I think many teachers did not address this issue or handle it effectively because they did not want to cause a ruffle with the “popular” students and their families. Teachers may not address issues in their classrooms because they may be afraid of going against the grain and what that could potentially do for themselves and their careers. They may not discuss issues because they do not feel comfortable or educated enough to do so and that is why topics such as sexuality or mental health must be discussed more often and more freely to encourage acknowledgement, awareness, respect and acceptance.

2. Another connection that I was able to make to the How Schools Play the Smear the Queer article was how after the discussion of sexuality and AIDS in the classroom took place, many students were able to connect, relate and console one another based on similar issues. Had this conversation never taken place these students wouldn’t have had the opportunity to have these realizations and new found supports. This part of the readings also allows for me to relate to a similar part of my high school experience. I knew a couple people who clearly identified as gay or bisexual but due to ridicule and harassment never let on. This was really tough to watch because now as I am still friends with these people I am able to see just how happy they are to freely express themselves and maintain healthy relationships and this makes me realize just how happy they could have, and should have been in high school as well. Although many teachers had to have known about these students and the ridicule that they received, they never really addressed it or provided appropriate outlets or lessons for the class to engage in. As I look back I am even surprised to see some people come out that I really had no idea about and it is a shame that they were so good at having to hide who they were, or missed out on having conversations and relationships with others that were experiencing the same hardships as them.


Something to think about:

As fellow teachers do you think that parents should have a choice on whether their child should have to learn about same sex marriages etc in health class, or do you think that it should be mandatory? Although I feel that it should be mandatory, I am curious to know what others think and their reasoning behind it.